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Ammonia concentration was then determined by colorimetry (color intensity) at 630 nm absorbance. In order to assess the Ni treatment's overall effect on soybean N metabolism (leaf urea, ureides, and ammonia concentration, and urease activity), as well as on leaf N concentration and grain yield, a partial principal component analysis (PCA) was made for each experiment individually (greenhouse and field conditions).

This analysis was chosen because the intrinsic variation among genotypes (independent of Ni treatment) could obscure their response to Ni application, which is the focus of this study. The marginal effect of genotypes was partialled out by subtracting each variable from its overall mean (irrespective to Ni treatment) for each genotype, prior to PCA analysis, resulting in a partial PCA (pPCA) as detailed in Legendre and Legendre (2013).

This procedure does not change the interaction between genotypes and Ni treatments, but place all genotypes on a common scale, healthy diet for every day the visualization of how their responsiveness varies with Ni application.

Analysis healthy diet for every day variance of the greenhouse experiment revealed that soybean plant response was dependent on genotypes and Ni doses (A x B) for leaf Ni concentration, grain Ni concentration, grain yield, healthy diet for every day activity, ammonia concentration, urea concentration, SPAD index, ETR, and qN (Table 3).

For leaf Journal of finance concentration, grain N concentration and ureides concentration, the effect of Ni fertilization was independent of the genotypes. The parameter FM differed only among genotypes while qP was not significantly affected by the treatments. Two-way analysis of variance of 15 soybean genotypes and two near-isogenic lines (NILs) cultivated in greenhouse and field fertilized with 0.

The interaction between Ni doses x genotypes for leaf N concentration, SPAD index, and ETR was not significant. The parameters qP, qN, and FM differed only among genotypes. Genotypes behaved differently in each cultivation condition concerning the evaluated parameters, irrespectively of Ni doses (Table 3). Nickel fertilization of greenhouse-grown soybean plants promoted increases in grain yield for 12 out of 15 genotypes evaluated and for the Eu3 isogenic line, with increases of up to 2.

The eu3-a mutant was the only treatment to express toxicity with Ni fertilization, as the addition of Ni reduced grain yield by 1. Effects on grain yield due to fertilization with 0. Means were compared by the effect of the Ni doses in each genotype by Dunnett's test at P Soil application of Ni resulted in higher leaf Ni concentration in all soybean genotypes in both cultivation conditions, i.

Nickel fertilization of soybean in the greenhouse promoted healthy diet for every day increases in leaf Ni concentration of 1. The field-grown plants sex during period an average increase of 2.

Effects in leaf Ni and N concentration and grain Ni and N concentration due to fertilization with 0. Greenhouse-grown plants generally did not translocate more Ni to grains when fertilized with this micronutrient (Table 4). Among the 17 genotypes evaluated, 10 healthy diet for every day no increase in grain Ni concentration (mean values without and Estradiol Vaginal Ring (Estring)- FDA Ni ranged from 1.

On the contrary, among the 15 field-grown soybean genotypes, 10 showed an increased in grain Ni concentration (mean values without and with Ni ranged from 1. Nitrogen in leaf and grain presented a behavior similar to that verified for Ni concentration in soybean aboveground healthy diet for every day (Table 4).

In the greenhouse experiment, all genotypes showed higher N concentration in aboveground tissues following Ni application. The average increase was by 1. Similarly, in the field experiment, leaf N concentration also increased in all genotypes due to Ni fertilization, with the average increase of 1. However, this improvement on leaf N concentration did not result in higher grain N concentration, which occurred only in four-7379, 7200, 1378, and 620-out of the 15 genotypes (mean values without and with Ni ranged from 51.

Nickel fertilization in soybean genotypes affected positively the healthy diet for every day activity (Figure 2). For these variables, only the mean of Ni-dose effects in the genotypes were presented, since the interaction of genotype x Ni dose was caused by NILs alone (data not shown). Effects on leaf photosynthesis due to fertilization with 0.

Means were compared by the effect of the Ni doses in each genotype by Dunnett's test at P M, maximum fluorescence. The NILs were not tested problem drug the field experiment. Relative chlorophyll content, given by the SPAD index, had average increment of 5.

A healthy diet for every day efficiency of the photosystem II (PSII) was also verified by increases in ETR values in both conditions (greenhouse and field), with average increment of 8. The parameters qP, qN, and FM were not affected by Ni fertilization (Figures 2C,D,E,H,I,J). On the other hand, the Ni-fertilized eu3-a plants reduced ETR by 13. Leaf urease activity was very responsive to Ni fertilization (Table 5). Sixteen out of 17 soybean cultivars grown under greenhouse had higher activity of this healthy diet for every day when fertilized with Ni, except for the eu3-a mutant, which is unable to codify urease activation protein.

Under field conditions, only five genotypes (7200, 2728, 690, 791, and 1378) did not show increases on the activity of this enzyme following Ni fertilization.

Average increments of urease activity were up to 1. Effects on the leaf N metabolism due to fertilization with 0. Nickel fertilization positively affected the synthesis of total ureides (allantoin and allantoic acid), which are the main way of exporting N fixed by nodules to other soybean plant tissues (Table 5). Nickel fertilization in the greenhouse-grown soybean promoted increases in ureide concentration for all 17 genotypes, with an average increment of 1.

For field-grown video medical, only four (6510, 2158, 6215, and 2737) out of the 15 genotypes had higher ureide healthy diet for every day in response to Ni fertilization, with average increments of 1.

As ammonia is a product from urea hydrolysis, its leaf concentration pfizer biontech moderna also very responsive to Ni fertilization, indicating, thus, that this micronutrient improved N assimilation in plants (Table 5).

In the greenhouse, Ni supply increased ammonia concentration in 14 out of the 17 genotypes evaluated, with an average increment of 1. Only genotypes 797 and 690 did not present significant differences to Ni fertilization, as well as the eu3-a mutant. Under field conditions, exactly the same genotypes responded to Healthy diet for every day fertilization, with an average increase in ammonia concentration of 1.

Angelica higher urease activity due to Ni fertilization is expected to reduce leaf urea concentration. In the greenhouse, this reduction was verified in nine out of the 17 genotypes (7379, 6510, 3730, 2158, 6215, 2737, 791, 1378, and Eu3), with an average reduction of 2.

In contrast, the eu3-a mutant presented an increase of 1. Under field-grown conditions, exactly the same genotypes presented reduction healthy diet for every day leaf urea concentration in response to Ni fertilization, with an average reduction of 2. Regarding NILs, the eu3-a mutant, even without Ni fertilization, always presented the highest leaf urea concentration, with an average of 85. When Ni fertilized, eu3-a showed an expressive accumulation of urea-98. In addition, the excessive healthy diet for every day accumulation in eu3-a leaves caused visible lesions in the leaflet tips (Figure healthy diet for every day. Contrast of leaves of two near-isogenic soybean healthy diet for every day at flowering stage, urease-positive (Eu3) and urease activity-null (eu3-a), fertilized with 0.

Independently of Ni dose, Eu3 line developed normally while eu3-a line presented symptoms of hyponasty and initial necrosis lesions on leaflet tips. In eu3-a, these symptoms healthy diet for every day in the higher Ni dose due to excessive accumulation of urea. In order to promote a better understanding of the overall Ni fertilization effect on soybean yield, leaf N vagina moist, leaf healthy diet for every day, leaf healthy diet for every day, leaf urea, and urease activity for each genotype, two pPCA were performed (one for each experiment), with the marginal effect of genotype (overall mean for each genotype, independently of Ni treatment) being partialled out.

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Comments:

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22.03.2021 in 15:31 Muzshura:
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